Excessive-dose prophylactic anticoagulation or therapeutic anticoagulation lowered de novo thrombosis in sufferers with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia, primarily based on knowledge from 334 adults.
Sufferers with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia are at elevated danger of thrombosis and anticoagulation-related bleeding, due to this fact knowledge to establish the bottom efficient anticoagulant dose are wanted, wrote Vincent Labbé, MD, of Sorbonne College, Paris, France, and colleagues.
Earlier research of various anticoagulation methods for noncritically in poor health and critically in poor health sufferers with COVID-19 pneumonia have proven contrasting outcomes, however some establishments suggest a high-dose routine within the wake of information exhibiting macrovascular thrombosis in sufferers with COVID-19 who have been handled with normal anticoagulation, the authors wrote.
Nevertheless, no beforehand printed research have in contrast the effectiveness of the three anticoagulation methods: high-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (HD-PA), normal dose prophylactic anticoagulation (SD-PA), and therapeutic anticoagulation (TA), they mentioned.
Within the open-label Anticoagulation COVID-19 (ANTICOVID) trial, printed final week in JAMA Inside Drugs, the researchers recognized consecutively hospitalized adults aged 18 years and older being handled for hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia in 23 facilities in France between April 2021 and December 2021.
The sufferers have been randomly assigned to SD-PA (116 sufferers), HD-PA (111 sufferers), and TA (112 sufferers) utilizing low-molecular-weight heparin for 14 days, or till both hospital discharge or weaning from supplemental oxygen for 48 consecutive hours, whichever final result occurred first. The HD-PA sufferers acquired two instances the SD-PA dose. The imply age of the sufferers was 58.3 years, and roughly two thirds have been males; race and ethnicity knowledge weren’t collected. Individuals had no macrovascular thrombosis firstly of the examine.
The first outcomes have been all-cause mortality and time to medical enchancment (outlined because the time from randomization to a 2-point enchancment on a 7-category respiratory operate scale).
The secondary final result was a mix of security and efficacy at day 28 that included a composite of thrombosis (ischemic stroke, noncerebrovascular arterial thrombosis, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary artery thrombosis, and central venous catheter-related deep venous thrombosis), main bleeding, or all-cause loss of life.
For the first final result, outcomes have been comparable among the many teams; HD-PA had no important profit over SD-PA or TA. All-cause loss of life charges for SD-PA, HD-PA, and TA sufferers have been 14%, 12%, and 13%, respectively. The time to medical enchancment for the three teams was roughly 8 days, 9 days, and eight days, respectively. Outcomes for the first final result have been constant throughout all prespecified subgroups.
Nevertheless, HD-PA was related to a major fourfold lowered danger of de novo thrombosis in comparison with SD-PA (5.5% vs. 20.2%) with no noticed enhance in main bleeding. TA was not related to any important enchancment in main or secondary outcomes in contrast with HD-PA or SD-PA.
The present examine findings of no enchancment in survival or illness decision in sufferers with the next anticoagulant dose displays knowledge from earlier research, the researchers wrote of their dialogue. “Our examine outcomes along with these of earlier RCTs help the premise that the position of microvascular thrombosis in worsening organ dysfunction could also be narrower than estimated,” they mentioned.
The findings have been restricted by a number of elements together with the open-label design and the comparatively small pattern measurement, the shortage of information on microvascular (vs macrovascular) thrombosis at baseline, and the predominance of the Delta variant of COVID-19 among the many examine members, which can have contributed to a decrease mortality fee, the researchers famous.
Nevertheless, given the numerous discount in de novo thrombosis, the outcomes help the routine use of HD-PA in sufferers with extreme hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia, they concluded.
Outcomes Inform Present Medical Apply
Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, “Sufferers hospitalized with COVID-19 manifested the very best danger for thromboembolic problems, particularly sufferers within the intensive care setting,” and early studies advised that normal prophylactic doses of anticoagulant remedy could be inadequate to forestall thrombotic occasions, wrote Richard C. Becker, MD, of the College of Cincinnati, Ohio, and Thomas L. Ortel, MD, of Duke College, Durham, North Carolina, in an accompanying editorial.
“Though there have been a number of research which have investigated the position of anticoagulant remedy in hospitalized sufferers with COVID-19, that is the primary examine that particularly in contrast a normal, prophylactic dose of low-molecular-weight heparin to a ‘high-dose’ prophylactic routine and to a full therapeutic dose routine,” Ortel mentioned in an interview.
“Given the considerations about an elevated thrombotic danger with prophylactic dose anticoagulation, and the potential bleeding danger related to a full therapeutic dose of anticoagulation, this strategy enabled the investigators to discover the efficacy and security of an intermediate dose between these two extremes,” he mentioned.
Within the present examine, “It was notable that the first driver of the improved outcomes with the ‘high-dose’ prophylactic routine mirrored the fourfold discount in macrovascular thrombosis, a discovering which was not noticed in different research investigating anticoagulant remedy in hospitalized sufferers with extreme COVID-19,” Ortel advised Medscape. “A lot preliminary concern about development of illness in sufferers hospitalized with extreme COVID-19 targeted on the position of microvascular thrombosis, which seems to be much less essential on this course of, or, alternatively, much less attentive to anticoagulant remedy.”
The medical takeaway from the examine, Ortel mentioned, is the decreased danger for venous thromboembolism with a high-dose prophylactic anticoagulation technique in contrast with a standard-dose prophylactic routine for sufferers hospitalized with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia, “resulting in an improved web medical final result.”
Wanting forward, “Extra analysis is required to find out whether or not the next dose of prophylactic anticoagulation could be useful for sufferers hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia who are usually not in an intensive care unit setting,” Ortel mentioned. Research are additionally wanted to find out whether or not therapeutic interventions are equally useful in sufferers with completely different coronavirus variants, since most sufferers within the present examine have been contaminated with the Delta variant, he added.
The examine was supported by LEO Pharma. Lead creator Labbe disclosed grants from LEO Pharma throughout the examine and costs from AOP Well being unrelated to the present examine.
Becker disclosed private charges from Novartis DSMB, Ionis DSMB, and Basking Biosciences Scientific Advisory Board unrelated to the present examine. Ortel disclosed grants from the US Nationwide Institutes of Well being, Instrumentation Laboratory, Stago, and Siemens; contract charges from the US Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention; and honoraria from UpToDate unrelated to the present examine.
JAMA Intern Med. Printed on-line March 22, 2023. Full textual content, Editorial
Heidi Splete is a contract medical journalist with 20 years of expertise.
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