High Salt Intake Linked to Atherosclerosis Even With Normal BP

A big research from Sweden concludes {that a} excessive salt consumption is a vital danger issue for atherosclerosis, even within the absence of hypertension.

The research, together with greater than 10,000 people between the ages of fifty and 64 years from the Swedish Cardiopulmonary bioImage Examine, confirmed a big hyperlink between dietary salt consumption and the chance for atherosclerotic lesions within the coronary and carotid arteries, even in members with regular blood stress and with out recognized heart problems.

The discovering means that salt might be a dangerous think about its personal proper earlier than the event of hypertension, the authors write. The outcomes had been printed on-line March 30 in European Coronary heart Journal Open.

Dr Jonas Wuopio

It has been recognized for a very long time that salt is linked to hypertension, however the function that salt performs in atherosclerosis has not been examined, first creator, Jonas Wuopio, MD, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, and Scientific Analysis Heart, Falun, Uppsala College, each in Sweden, instructed theheart.org | Medscape Cardiology.

“Hardly anybody appears at modifications within the arteries’ calcification, the atherosclerotic plaques and the affiliation with salt consumption,” Wuopio stated. “We had this unique information from our cohort, so we wished to make use of it to shut this information hole.”

The evaluation included 10,788 adults ages 50 to 64 years, (common age, 58 years; 52% ladies) who underwent a coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) scan. The estimated 24-hour sodium excretion was used to measure sodium consumption.

CCTA was used to acquire 3D pictures of the coronary arteries to measure the diploma of coronary artery calcium in addition to detect stenosis within the coronary arteries. Members additionally had an ultrasound of the carotid arteries.

After adjusting for age, intercourse, and research web site (the research was carried out at Uppsala and Malmö), the researchers discovered that rising salt consumption was linked with rising atherosclerosis in a linear trend in each the coronary and carotid arteries.

Every 1000 mg rise in sodium excretion was related to a 9% elevated prevalence of carotid plaque (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; P < .001; confidence interval [CI], 1.06 – 1.12), the next coronary artery calcium rating (OR, 1.16; P < .001; CI, 1.12 – 1.19), and a 17% elevated prevalence of coronary artery stenosis (OR, 1.17; P < .001; CI, 1.13 – 1.20).

The affiliation was abolished, although, after adjusting for blood stress, they notice. Their “interpretation is that the rise in blood stress from sodium consumption, even beneath the extent that at the moment defines arterial hypertension, is a vital issue that mediates the interaction between salt consumption and the atherosclerotic course of,” they write. “As we noticed an affiliation in people with regular blood stress, one attainable clarification for these findings is that the detrimental pathological processes start already previous to the event of hypertension,” they notice, though they warning that no causal relationships may be gleaned from this cross-sectional research. 

In addition they reported no signal of a “J-curve”; members with the bottom ranges of sodium excretion had the bottom prevalence of each coronary and carotid atherosclerosis, which contradicts findings in some research that discovered very low sodium linked to elevated heart problems–associated occasions.

“There have been some controversies amongst researchers relating to very low consumption, the place some say very low salt consumption can enhance the chance of heart problems, however we couldn’t discover this on this research,” Wuopio stated.

“Our research is confirming that extra salt just isn’t a very good factor, however the truth that it’s linked to atherosclerosis, even within the absence of hypertension, was a little bit of a shock,” he stated.

“I will probably be telling my sufferers to observe the recommendation given by the World Well being Group and different medical societies, to restrict your consumption of salt to roughly 1 teaspoon, even when your blood stress is regular.”

Time to Scrutinize Salt’s Function in Atherosclerosis

In an accompanying editorial, Maciej Banach, MD, Medical College of Lodz, and Stanislaw Surma, MD, School of Medical Sciences in Katowice, each in Poland, write that extreme dietary salt consumption is a well-documented cardiovascular danger issue, and that the affiliation is defined in most research by elevated blood stress.

“We must always look extra extensively on the function of dietary salt, because it impacts many pathological mechanisms, by which, particularly with the coexistence of different danger components, atherosclerosis might progress very quick,” they write.

“The outcomes of the research shed new mild on the direct relationship between extreme dietary salt consumption and the chance of ASCVD [atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease], indicating that salt consumption may be a danger issue for atherosclerosis even previous to the event of hypertension,” they conclude.

Confirmatory and Novel

Dr Alon Gitig

“No one questions the truth that hypertension is a strong danger issue for atherosclerotic illness, however not all research have steered that, at the very least at considerably greater ranges of sodium consumption, that prime salt consumption tracks with danger for atherosclerotic illness,” Alon Gitig, MD, assistant professor and director of cardiology, Mount Sinai Docs-Westchester, Yonkers, New York, instructed theheart.org | Medscape Cardiology.

A lot of the research of salt consumption within the eating regimen are primarily based on affected person self-reports by way of meals frequency questionnaires, which can provide a normal concept of salt consumption, however are sometimes not completely correct, Gitig stated.

“Right here, they measured sodium within the urine and estimated the 24-hour salt consumption from that, which is barely novel,” he stated.

Everyone is aware of that hypertension is related to future heart problems danger, however what many do not notice is that that danger begins to extend barely however considerably above a blood stress that’s already within the vary of 115 mm Hg/75 mm Hg, he stated.

“The decrease you will get your blood stress down, to round 115 – 120, the decrease your danger for heart problems,” Gitig stated.

It’s attainable for most individuals to decrease blood stress by consideration to eating regimen, limiting sodium, performing cardio and weight coaching workouts, and sustaining a wholesome weight, he stated.

An instance of a cardiovascular well being eating regimen is the Dietary Approaches to Cease Hypertension (DASH) eating regimen.

“The DASH eating regimen, consisting of 9 servings of fruit and veggies a day with few refined carbs, flour and sugar, has been proven in a randomized trial to dramatically cut back blood stress. There are 2 causes for that. One is that the fruit and veggies have many phytonutrients which can be good for arteries. The opposite is that a big proportion of US adults have insulin resistance, which results in hypertension.  

“The extra fruit and veggies and wholesome animal merchandise, and fewer sugar and flour, the extra you will enhance your insulin resistance, so you may convey your blood stress down that method,” Gitig stated.

The research was funded by the Swedish Coronary heart-Lung Basis, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Basis, the Swedish Analysis Council and Vinnova (Sweden’s Innovation company), the College of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska College Hospital, the Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm County Council, the Linköping College and College Hospital, the Lund College and Skane College Hospital, the Umea College and College Hospital, and the Uppsala College and College Hospital. Wuopio and Gitig report no related monetary relationships. Banach stories monetary relationships with Adamed, Amgen, Daichii Sankyo, Esperion, KrKa, NewAmsterdam, Polpharma, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi, Teva, Viatris, and CMDO at Longevity Group (LU). Surma stories a monetary relationship with Sanofi and Novartis.

Eur Coronary heart J Open. Revealed on-line March 30. Summary, Editorial

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